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  • Writer's pictureAlpesh Patel

The 25 Largest Economies in the World by 2075: A Forecast by Goldman Sachs

In a groundbreaking report, Goldman Sachs has projected the landscape of the global economy in 2075, identifying the 25 largest economies. This forecast, based on extensive data analysis and economic modeling, offers a fascinating glimpse into the future, highlighting shifts in economic power and the emergence of new players on the global stage.

2075 Economic forecast Goldmans pdf
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Goldman Sachs' predictions are rooted in a comprehensive analysis of current economic trends, demographic shifts, technological advancements, and potential geopolitical changes. The methodology incorporates factors such as GDP growth rates, population dynamics, productivity improvements, and technological innovation. It's important to note that such long-term forecasts are inherently speculative and subject to change based on unforeseen global events and trends.

Overview of the Global Economic Landscape in 2075

Goldman Sachs' projection paints a picture of a world where Asia's economic clout is markedly pronounced, with China and India leading the charge. The list also reflects the significant growth of economies in Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America, indicating a more diversified global economic landscape.

The Top 25 Economies in 2075

1. China: $57 trillion

Growth Drivers: Continued technological innovation, a shift to a consumer-driven economy, and large-scale infrastructure projects.

Challenges: Aging population, environmental concerns, and the need for political and economic reforms.

2. India: $52.5 trillion

Growth Drivers: Demographic dividend with a young workforce, advancements in technology and digital infrastructure, and increasing foreign investment.

Challenges: Infrastructure development, addressing income inequality, and reforming education and healthcare systems.

3. United States: $51.5 trillion

Growth Drivers: Technological leadership, strong consumer market, and innovative capabilities in various sectors.

Challenges: Aging population, political polarization, and adapting to changing global trade dynamics.

4. Indonesia: $13.7 trillion

Growth Drivers: Strategic location for trade, growing middle class, and a focus on infrastructure and manufacturing.

Challenges: Political stability, environmental issues, and improving education and healthcare.

5. Nigeria: $13.1 trillion

Growth Drivers: Large and young population, potential in agriculture and energy sectors, and emerging technology sector.

Challenges: Political instability, infrastructure deficits, and diversifying economy beyond oil.

6. Pakistan: $12.3 trillion

Growth Drivers: Youthful population, potential in manufacturing and services, and strategic geographic location.

Challenges: Political stability, economic reforms, and addressing education and healthcare needs.

7. Egypt: $10.4 trillion

Growth Drivers: Strategic location, growing service sector, and government reforms in infrastructure and energy.

Challenges: Political stability, water resource management, and diversifying the economy.

8. Brazil: $8.7 trillion

Growth Drivers: Rich natural resources, agricultural and energy sectors, and a large internal market. Challenges: Political and economic stability, environmental concerns, and improving education and infrastructure.

9. Germany: $8.1 trillion

Growth Drivers: Strong industrial base, technological innovation, and robust export sector.

Challenges: Demographic trends, energy transition, and maintaining its technological edge.

10. Mexico: $7.6 trillion

Growth Drivers: Manufacturing and service sectors, trade agreements, and proximity to the U.S. market. Challenges: Political stability, addressing crime and corruption, and economic inequality.

11. United Kingdom: $7.6 trillion

Growth Drivers: Financial services sector, technological innovation, and global trade relationships. Challenges: Post-Brexit economic adjustments, productivity growth, and regional disparities.

12. Japan: $7.5 trillion

Growth Drivers: Technological leadership, strong manufacturing sector, and a focus on innovation. Challenges: Aging population, public debt, and adapting to global economic changes.

13. Russia: $6.9 trillion

Growth Drivers: Natural resources, particularly in energy, and potential in agriculture and technology sectors. Challenges: Geopolitical tensions, economic sanctions, and diversifying economy beyond oil and gas.

14. Philippines: $6.6 trillion

Growth Drivers: Growing service sector, remittances from overseas workers, and increasing industrialisation. Challenges: Infrastructure development, political stability, and environmental vulnerabilities.

15. France: $6.5 trillion

Growth Drivers: Strong industrial and service sectors, technological innovation, and a skilled workforce. Challenges: Structural reforms, demographic changes, and maintaining competitiveness in the EU.

16. Bangladesh: $6.3 trillion

Growth Drivers: Rapidly growing garment sector, remittances, and developing sectors like IT and pharmaceuticals. Challenges: Political stability, climate change impacts, and improving infrastructure and education.

17. Ethiopia: $6.2 trillion

Growth Drivers: Agricultural potential, growing manufacturing sector, and large population. Challenges: Political instability, infrastructure needs, and managing ethnic divisions.

18. Saudi Arabia: $6.1 trillion

Growth Drivers: Oil wealth, economic diversification efforts, and investments in technology and tourism. Challenges: Oil dependency, regional geopolitical tensions, and social reforms.

19. Canada: $5.2 trillion

Growth Drivers: Natural resources, strong banking sector, and technological innovation. Challenges: Aging population, climate change impacts, and trade dependencies.

20. Turkey: $5.2 trillion

Growth Drivers: Strategic location, diversified economy, and a large, young population. Challenges: Economic stability, currency volatility, and geopolitical risks.

21. Australia: $4.3 trillion

Growth Drivers: Natural resources, strong service sector, and ties to Asian economies. Challenges: Geographic isolation, environmental challenges, and reliance on commodity exports.

22. Italy: $3.8 trillion

Growth Drivers: Manufacturing strength, tourism, and a skilled workforce.

Challenges: Political instability, public debt, and demographic trends.

23. Malaysia: $3.5 trillion

Growth Drivers: Diversified economy, strategic location in ASEAN, and growing tech sector. Challenges: Political stability, managing ethnic diversity, and economic competition in the region.

24. South Korea: $3.4 trillion

Growth Drivers: Technological innovation, strong manufacturing, and export-oriented economy.

Challenges: Geopolitical risks, aging population, and reliance on a few large conglomerates.

25. South Africa: $3.3 trillion

Growth Drivers: Rich in natural resources, developed financial and legal systems, and regional influence. Challenges: Political instability, economic inequality, and addressing unemployment and education.

India's Economic Surge

India's projected rise to the second-largest economy globally by 2075 is a testament to its immense growth potential. This growth is attributed to:

Demographic Dividend: India's large and youthful population is a significant driver of its economic growth.

Technological Advancement: India's burgeoning tech industry and digital economy are key growth factors.

Economic Reforms: Continued reforms in economic policies and infrastructure development are crucial for India's growth trajectory.

Manufacturing and Services: India's focus on manufacturing under initiatives like 'Make in India', coupled with a robust services sector, particularly in IT and ITES, are pivotal to its economic expansion.


Goldman Sachs' projection for 2075 highlights a world where economic power is more evenly distributed globally, with emerging economies playing increasingly prominent roles.

This shift underscores the importance of economic reforms, technological advancement, and demographic factors in shaping the future global economic landscape. The rise of countries like India, Indonesia, and Nigeria, alongside the sustained economic influence of nations like the U.S., China, and Germany, paints a diverse and dynamic picture of the world economy in the latter half of the 21st century.

Alpesh Patel OBE


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